Ethical literature – Jews For Morality http://www.jewsformorality.org/ Fri, 30 Sep 2022 07:30:21 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 http://www.jewsformorality.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/07/icon-2021-07-09T151402.937-150x150.png Ethical literature – Jews For Morality http://www.jewsformorality.org/ 32 32 With anxiety levels rising, it’s time to look into the cause http://www.jewsformorality.org/with-anxiety-levels-rising-its-time-to-look-into-the-cause/ Fri, 30 Sep 2022 01:30:00 +0000 http://www.jewsformorality.org/with-anxiety-levels-rising-its-time-to-look-into-the-cause/ Richard Kyte is director of the DB Reinhart Institute for Ethics in Leadership at Viterbo University in La Crosse, Wisconsin, and co-host of “The Ethical Life” podcast. Last week, the US Task Force on Preventive Services, an advisory group that provides health care screening guidelines, recommended that all adults under age 65 be screened for […]]]>





Richard Kyte is director of the DB Reinhart Institute for Ethics in Leadership at Viterbo University in La Crosse, Wisconsin, and co-host of “The Ethical Life” podcast.


Last week, the US Task Force on Preventive Services, an advisory group that provides health care screening guidelines, recommended that all adults under age 65 be screened for anxiety. Earlier this year, they recommended screening young people for anxiety.

The historic rise in anxiety levels is particularly acute among young adults. According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, anxiety rose from 8% in 2008 to nearly 15% in 2018 among 18-25 year olds.

Anxiety is an important and urgent health problem. Getting it under control requires diagnosing cases earlier so they can be treated. The catch is that behavioral health is woefully underfunded and providers are overstretched. Counseling services in most schools and universities have reached their limit. When students are referred to external services, they often find themselves on a waiting list of several months for a first visit.

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The more we study the situation, the more it seems that increasing screening and hiring more therapists is a lost game. It’s like scooping water from a sinking boat. At some point, the leak has to be repaired. The big question is, what is causing anxiety levels to rise?

Those who suffer from anxiety bring up things that are happening in their lives or in the world, such as discrimination, harassment, trauma, health, safety, finances, and politics. But people have always faced serious difficulties, and it is simply not true that things are objectively worse today than they were for previous generations.

Maybe we should look at the ways we think about things rather than the things themselves. What if the reason for rising levels of anxiety isn’t that things are getting worse, but that we’re becoming less and less able to think about things constructively?

During an annual physical exam, doctors examine the heart, lungs, and other vital organs. Now, a panel of health experts recommends doctors check patients for anxiety as well. Dr. Lynn Bufka of the American Psychological Association joins Mary Calvi of CBS News New York to explain.



A study published last year in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences reports that cognitive distortions — thought patterns associated with anxiety and depression — have increased over the past few decades. The authors speculate that our society could be suffering from a collective depression.

Anxiety doesn’t just happen because there are stressors in a person’s life. Anxiety is what in psychology is called an internalizing disorder. There is a flaw in the way incidents are handled, and this results in various forms of distress, ranging from worry and fear to bouts of insomnia and panic attacks.

The best way to deal with an internalizing disorder is to cultivate mental discipline. But it takes time and practice. A person who spends years cultivating a self-image that depends on things going well and people seeing them the way they want shouldn’t be surprised when their life falls apart. Not all the king’s therapists and all the king’s advisers will put them back together.

At one time it was assumed that the development of mental discipline was an essential part of education. This, after all, is why the different branches of university study are called “disciplines”.

But over the past few decades, two things have happened. First, our education system has elevated STEM fields and professional studies such as healthcare, business, law, and education. Their common point is to learn to manipulate and transform the outside world. At the same time, the fields of study that traditionally taught young people how to develop internal discipline – philosophy, religion, literature and the arts – declined and changed focus. Increasingly, the humanities seek to maintain their relevance by focusing on topics such as “applied ethics”, “cultural studies”, “feminist studies” and “professional writing”, most of which have an external orientation.

The result is that we gradually become better and better able to transform the world outside our heads at the same time that we become worse and worse at controlling the thoughts that go on inside them.

A sign that we are losing our minds is the fact that wellness is now a 4 trillion dollar industry. People know something is wrong and are looking for solutions. The market is happy to provide these solutions in the form of essential oils, biohacking, facial exercises, fitness apps, yoga classes, and detox diets. It’s not that any of these things are bad, they just don’t get to the root of the problem. Exercising, for example, will definitely help a person feel better, but it won’t fundamentally change the way they think about things.

The problem, as the Stoic philosopher Epictetus pointed out nearly 2,000 years ago, is that the more we focus on changing the world around us to feel better, the more emotionally attached we feel to it. . If our emotional life is too closely tied to circumstances beyond our control, then no matter how much we improve things, we will always feel like we have no control over our lives.

There will always be those who experience severe forms of anxiety and need therapy to help them cope with their affliction. But when we see a huge increase in anxiety levels in the population over a relatively short period of time, it’s a sign that something is seriously wrong.

The main cause of anxiety is not what is happening in the world, but how we think about what is happening. Fortunately, it’s something we can control, and we have centuries of wisdom to help us do it better. We just have to turn to it one more time.

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Reviews | Regret for college majors has little to do with majors http://www.jewsformorality.org/reviews-regret-for-college-majors-has-little-to-do-with-majors/ Sun, 25 Sep 2022 14:00:00 +0000 http://www.jewsformorality.org/reviews-regret-for-college-majors-has-little-to-do-with-majors/ September 25, 2022 at 7:00 a.m. EDT (Washington Post staff illustration; images by iStock) Regrets, I had some… as many who majored in languages, literature, history, art, religion, etc., apparently did. Earlier this month, the Post’s “Department of Data” published a startling article on higher education. According to a recent Federal Reserve survey, The Post […]]]>
(Washington Post staff illustration; images by iStock)
(Washington Post staff illustration; images by iStock)

Regrets, I had some… as many who majored in languages, literature, history, art, religion, etc., apparently did.

Earlier this month, the Post’s “Department of Data” published a startling article on higher education. According to a recent Federal Reserve survey, The Post reported, 37% of college graduates — nearly 2 in 5 — regret their chosen field of study, including nearly half in the humanities and arts. (Engineers reported the lowest regret rates, at 24%).

These data, on the face of it, reflect the prevailing conversation around the value of college and the need for more students to move into “hands-on” fields of study such as those under the STEM umbrella, or to move on to more vocational training.

But while the results were eye-catching, the emphasis on choosing the major was a major mistake. After all, the difference between the highest and lowest regret rates isn’t really that big. And “vocational and technical training” was the third most missed field of study.

Even if the “lazy baristas” who majored in “queer pet literature” (thanks, Senator Ted Cruz) had learned to code instead, they still have a 1 in 3 chance of wishing they had done something else.

The truth is that in all areas, what really underlies regret is debt.

Dive deeper into the Federal Reserve report and one quote stands out: “Perceptions of higher education are tied to whether individuals had to borrow for their education and whether the returns from their education were sufficient to repay their student loans. “.

It’s the poor return on investment – or a return on investment that falls short of expectations – that causes the greatest dissatisfaction.

The Federal Reserve report adds, “Student borrowers with unpaid debt were…twice as likely as those who paid off their debt to say that the costs of their education outweigh the benefits.

Americans have long been sold on the idea that college is a middle-class one-way ticket — or the cost of admission to stay there. But what if you pay the very expensive fare and you don’t arrive at the promised destination?

Regret is the natural result.

When higher education becomes a financial albatross rather than a launchpad to success, its value can of course seem questionable. But this raises at least two types of questions. The Practice: How Do We Solve the High Cost of College Education? And the philosophy: in education, how do we define “success” and “usefulness” in the first place? What is an education really for and how do we decide which areas of study are “valid”?

The debate over the first question has become particularly heated since President Biden announced his plan last month to write off hundreds of billions of dollars in student debt. Some opponents argue (correctly) that loan cancellation will only work if combined with financial reforms of the higher education system, and that a more forward-looking policy targeting costs is needed to ensure that the number of borrowers does not continue to grow. Suggestions range from the light-hearted — doubling the maximum Pell Grant — to the aggressive: requiring colleges to help pay off delinquent student loans.

Others say loan forgiveness should not be given at all. Which brings us to the second question about how to improve regret – and back to the college conundrum.

Presenting the results of the Federal Reserve survey as a “choosing the right major” story reinforces the idea that ROI is the only thing that matters. Some may be different.

In a democracy whose success depends on the discernment of its members, shouldn’t the goal of higher education be something – well – upper than individual financial success?

“Preparing every citizen to choose wisely and enabling them to choose freely are the primary functions of schools in a democracy,” Franklin D. Roosevelt said years before signing the GI Bill and essentially reinventing American higher education.

According to this ideal, students should be citizens, not just consumers. And while choosing the right major can help define a vocation, part of the process should be understanding that vocation in the context of the wider society.

An IT specialist could find themselves in a highly technical role. But the questions raised in the field – about ethics, creativity, our technological future – require more than technical know-how; they require the ability to think broadly and critically. Philosophy students may not spend the rest of their lives immersed in ancient texts, but the investigative practices they absorb become applicable to an endless array of real-life circumstances.

A field of study cannot be judged simply by projected income after graduation – the question of how it shapes the student is also relevant. But these ideas will fall through as long as debt is a major concern. And students will continue to regret their decisions, whether they major in econometrics or, indeed, in English.

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Children at the forefront of Road Safety Unit campaign – Jamaica Information Service http://www.jewsformorality.org/children-at-the-forefront-of-road-safety-unit-campaign-jamaica-information-service/ Wed, 21 Sep 2022 17:29:23 +0000 http://www.jewsformorality.org/children-at-the-forefront-of-road-safety-unit-campaign-jamaica-information-service/ The Road Safety Education in Schools program aims to promote and encourage the safe use of Jamaican roads by the country’s children. Undertaken by the Road Safety Unit of the Ministry of Transport and Mines, the program targets young people at primary and secondary levels. In 2021, some 24 children lost their lives in road […]]]>

The Road Safety Education in Schools program aims to promote and encourage the safe use of Jamaican roads by the country’s children.

Undertaken by the Road Safety Unit of the Ministry of Transport and Mines, the program targets young people at primary and secondary levels.

In 2021, some 24 children lost their lives in road accidents and one of the targets for 2022 is to reduce the number of children killed for the year.

So far this year, 17 children have died, seven of whom were pedestrians and five passengers in private motor vehicles.

“We have to target our children because they are also road users. We have them as pedestrians, pedal cyclists, passengers in public passenger vehicles and private motor vehicles. So we need to educate them on the proper use of the road,” Dontae Matthews, Education and Information Manager, Road Safety Unit, told JIS News.

Education and Information Officer, Road Safety Unit, Department of Transport and Mines, Dontae Matthews.

He informs that the promotion of road safety in schools is an important undertaking for the Unit.

“We teach them what’s called the sidewalk drill, or the hand in the air drill, which teaches them how to cross the road, using their hands. So they approach the crosswalk, look right, then left, then right again, raise their hands, and that helps them get noticed by motorists or lift them up, because they are little children” , he adds.

Mr. Matthews explains that several approaches are used to deliver the important message to target audiences.

“We need to take a different approach when it comes to teenagers. If you talk to 10th or 11th graders, they are the ones who are going to learn to drive. So we need to show them some charts and show them some of the injuries people can get when they’re not wearing protective devices and when they’re not wearing a seatbelt,” says the education officer.

“We also take what we call a drunken buster [goggles], where we show 16 and 17 year olds what it’s like to be drunk. They walk on the mat, and then when they take it off, you hear them say ‘oh Lord, I’m not going [drive and] drink because it doesn’t do any good. So it’s something to deter them from drinking and driving,” Matthews points out.

The Road Safety Unit usually schedules at least 30 school visits per term, based on analysis.

However, in addition to this number, the Unit receives calls to visit other schools to participate in various events, which usually increases the number.

The Unit is also working with the Jamaica Social Investment Fund (JSIF) through the Safe Passage (Safe Routes to School) Road Safety Clubs initiative, which was launched in March.

It is a component of the Integrated Community Development Project II (ICDP II) ‘Safe Passages’ project, which aims to provide a safe environment for students when crossing specific roads and traffic lanes near some school campuses.

Participating schools are Treadlight Primary in Clarendon; Hope Valley Experimental, August Town Primary and Greenwich All-Age in Kingston and St. Andrew; and Bickersteth Primary and Infant, Roehampton Primary and Salt Spring Primary in St. James.

“We are part of this program where we give them information and give them support in terms of developing these clubs in the schools, making sure the clubs are maintained, [by] providing them with road safety literature and whatever support they can, to make sure these clubs are up and running,” says Matthews.

Dontae Matthews, Education and Information Officer, Road Safety Unit, Department of Transport and Mines, speaks to students at Oracabessa Primary School in St. Mary’s.

Meanwhile, the education manager encourages parents to make sure their children understand how to use the roads properly.

“Teach them to raise their hands and not run across the road. Lots of students like to play “last lick” and run across the road…they play; but that playing can also lead to a collision. So you want to make sure parents understand how to teach their kids to cross the road,” he says.

Mr Matthews also encourages parents to teach their children to walk in single file and make sure they face oncoming traffic.

This allows them to see if a vehicle is getting out of control and take the necessary action.

When it comes to designated drivers, parents should make sure they know the driver and understand how they behave on the road.

“We have a lot of reckless drivers…they pack kids into the back of vehicles. So, when the back seat is full, you find that they go in the trunk of the vehicles. On a bicycle, in western Jamaica, there are… four people on a bicycle when there should be two, the rider and the passenger; so it’s a big problem,” says Matthews.

It specifies that people on bikes are supposed to wear approved helmets, which must have a hard outer shell, protective padding and a retention system (chin bar).

Other highly recommended protective gear includes vest, gloves, knee pads, long pants and boots.

As for public passenger vehicles, students are encouraged to take units that have a red plate, with the driver identification card displayed and the Transport Authority sticker visible.

“If the car is full, they must not enter this vehicle. If it’s a regular five-seater, the rear three should be belted. Children under 12 should be seated in the back with seat belts or in child seats or booster seats, if possible,” says Matthews.

This security measure, he advises, is “not only [for] public passenger vehicles (VPP), but also drivers of private motor vehicles.

“So parents, if you’re carrying a child on your back, make sure they’re handled properly,” Mr Matthews insists.

In the meantime, motorists are encouraged to reduce their speed, especially if they are driving in school zones, and to stop at pedestrian crossings.

“Also be a good example and don’t run the red light, because kids know what the colors of the light mean,” he adds.

So far the Road Safety Unit has visited schools in Trelawny including Bounty Hall Primary, Duncans All-Age, Refuge Primary, Hampden Primary, Brampton Primary and First Hill All-Age.

In October the Unit will target schools in Clarendon, then in November it will move on to Manchester and in December to St. Catherine.

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Color changes and shear strength of simulated carious lesions treated with a new solution of 20% silver nanoclusters in polymethacrylic acid http://www.jewsformorality.org/color-changes-and-shear-strength-of-simulated-carious-lesions-treated-with-a-new-solution-of-20-silver-nanoclusters-in-polymethacrylic-acid/ Wed, 14 Sep 2022 09:45:32 +0000 http://www.jewsformorality.org/color-changes-and-shear-strength-of-simulated-carious-lesions-treated-with-a-new-solution-of-20-silver-nanoclusters-in-polymethacrylic-acid/ All experimental protocols were approved by the Secretariat for Research and Development, Universidad Católica de Cordoba, Argentina (SI-UCC research grants) and by the National Agency for Research under the FONCYT- PICT2020 Serie A #00539, and PICT2019 No. 241, CONICET-PIP, PRIMAR2017 (SeCyT-UNC). All methods were performed in accordance with current guidelines and regulations. Development and characterization […]]]>

All experimental protocols were approved by the Secretariat for Research and Development, Universidad Católica de Cordoba, Argentina (SI-UCC research grants) and by the National Agency for Research under the FONCYT- PICT2020 Serie A #00539, and PICT2019 No. 241, CONICET-PIP, PRIMAR2017 (SeCyT-UNC).

All methods were performed in accordance with current guidelines and regulations.

Development and characterization of the experimental agent Silver nanocluster

Different polymers derived from carboxylic acids, such as polyacrylic acid (PAA), polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) and polymethylvinylether-alt-maleic anhydride (pMVEMA) have been used as liquid precursors for the transport and stabilization of AgNCls18,19,20,21,22,23,24. In the present development, the synthesis of h-AgNCls was carried out at room temperature by photoreduction of AgNO3 in the presence of PMAA with light of 355 nm/wavelength, as reported in the literature18,19,20,21,22,23,24. In all cases, the optimal pH conditions were constantly evaluated, in the range of pH 5.5 to 6.5.

The solutions obtained were characterized by fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy, and the particle size was determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and AFM microscopy.

AgNO concentration3 was 5 × 10–4 M with a 5:1 Ag:monomer ratio in the initial Ag mix solution+/PMAA, which has been shown to have the best antibacterial properties21. These development procedures have previously been reported using a different platform and with a resin-based polymeric liquid precursor.25.

Sample size

A two-tailed test was used to determine the sample size using the proportional comparison formula considering 5% for the level of significance and 80% for the statistical power. For this purpose, the results obtained in a study reporting the SBS values ​​of GICs on the surface of dentin treated with SDF have been considered as a reference.16resulting in ≥ 7 samples needed for each group.

Sample preparation

Twenty-four non-caries third molars were obtained from the Bank of Human Teeth, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina (Ord. 3/16 HCD and Res. 333/17 HCD). The teeth were sterilized by gamma irradiation for 24 h before sectioning. Dentin blocks, 4 mm thick, were obtained by removing the occlusal enamel using a water-cooled low-speed cutting machine (Buehler, Germany) perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the tooth to achieve flat midline dentin surfaces. These were then polished with 400 grit silicon carbide paper and coated with nail polish (Revlon, New York, USA), exposing a 5 × 5 mm window in the occlusal dentin surface for the production of demineralized dentin to simulate dental caries.

Samples were immersed for 66 h in a solution containing 0.05 M acetate buffer, 2.2 mM calcium phosphate adjusted to pH 5.0 to generate a demineralized layer approximately 150 μm deep to simulate a lesion carious.

Once the artificial lesions had been made, the samples were divided into two treatment groups (A and B) and a control group (C) without surface treatment (n = 8):

  1. (A)

    treated with 20% AgNCls/PMAA; the solution was applied to the exposed demineralized surface with a microbrush for 10 s and then incubated at 37°C and 100% relative humidity for 24 h.

  2. (B)

    treated with SDF 38% (Fagamin, Tedequim, Córdoba, Argentina); the solution was applied to the exposed demineralized surface with a microbrush for 10 s and then incubated at 37°C and 100% relative humidity for 24 h.

  3. (VS)

    Control (no treatment); the exposed demineralised surfaces were left untreated and then incubated for 24 h at 37° C. and 100% relative humidity.

After 24 h of incubation, the samples were tested for initial color changes after application of the different treatments and submerged again for another 6 days at 37°C and 100% relative humidity. Final readings to determine color variations were taken after 7 days after receiving a single application of the respective treatments. The shear strength (SBS) of a high viscosity glass ionomer was tested after the color variation evaluation was finalized.

Color changes

Color measurements were obtained using a spectrophotometer (CM-600D Konica Minolta Sesing INC, Japan) and all measurements were replicated three times from which an average value was calculated and taken as the final value . Prior to the color test, the spectrophotometer was calibrated using the specified calibration plate. The CIE-L*a*b* color system, which is defined as a three-dimensional (3D) measurement system, has been applied to interpret the readings: ‘L’ indicates brightness, ‘a’ indicates red-green and ‘b ‘ the yellow-blue proportion of the color26. The values ​​obtained were automatically stored digitally by a computer connected to the spectrophotometer. Differences in specific color coordinates (ΔL, Δa, Δb) were recorded before and after demineralization of the samples (R0 and R1), 24 h (R2) and one week after application of the respective treatment (R3).

Total color differences (ΔE) were calculated using the following formula: ΔE = ((ΔL)2+ (∆a)2+ (Δb)2)1/2.

To assess the influence of treatment options on the color change of demineralized dentin, groups A and B were compared to a control group, where demineralized dentin was not treated (group C).

Shear strength test

Groups A and B received a second application of AgNCls/PMAA or SDF before placement of GIC – instead of conditioner – to potentially improve GIC adhesion. Conventional high-viscosity glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX-Gold Label, GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan) was hand-mixed on a pad for 20-30 s, following the manufacturer’s instructions, then inserted with a rubber spatula. plastic in a 4 mm diameter × 3 mm high mold that was positioned on treated or untreated demineralized dentin surfaces (control). A glass plate covered with Vaseline® was placed on top of the molds while the GIC was setting, and held together with forceps for 5 min. After initial set, samples were then stored in 100% relative humidity at 37°C for 24 hrs prior to adhesion testing.

For SBS, the samples were placed in a jig attached to a universal testing machine (Digimess RS-8000-5, China). The specimens were loaded using a bevelled flat blade placed as close as possible to the bonded interface and then stressed in shear at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until rupture.27. SBS values, expressed in MPa, were calculated using the following formula: (MPa) = N/12.6 where N is the force applied in Newtons at the time of failure, divided by the bonded area of ​​the ‘sample.

The failure mode of each specimen was analyzed using a confocal laser scanning microscope (OLYMPUS LEXT OLS4000, Tokyo, Japan) at low magnification (100X). Failure was determined as one of three possible modes, namely adhesive, cohesive, or mixed failure.

Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA, Student-you and post hoc Scheffe’s test with significance set at the 95% confidence level (p < 0.05).

Figure 1 shows the study schedule and the sequence applied to the groups for their comparison.

Figure 1

Timeline of the study. Sequence for testing color and SBS changes of samples.

Ethical approval and consent to participate

The teeth used in the study were obtained from the Human Tooth Bank, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina (Ord. 3/16 HCD and Res. 333/17 HCD) and consent for their use was canceled in accordance with ethics rules.

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Literary Notes: Sabras: The First Literary Prose Book in Urdu – Journal http://www.jewsformorality.org/literary-notes-sabras-the-first-literary-prose-book-in-urdu-journal/ Sun, 11 Sep 2022 23:43:39 +0000 http://www.jewsformorality.org/literary-notes-sabras-the-first-literary-prose-book-in-urdu-journal/ No matter how strange it may sound, the fact is that although Urdu originated in northern India, its first written literary pieces, whether in prose or poetry, were created in the south. from India. The word ‘Deccan’ literally means ‘south’ and Deccan is credited as the birthplace of the earliest Urdu literary plays. The very […]]]>

No matter how strange it may sound, the fact is that although Urdu originated in northern India, its first written literary pieces, whether in prose or poetry, were created in the south. from India.

The word ‘Deccan’ literally means ‘south’ and Deccan is credited as the birthplace of the earliest Urdu literary plays. The very first literary work written in Urdu – i.e. discovered so far – is Masnavi Kadam Rao Padam Rao, according to research studies. It was written between 1430 AD and 1435 AD by Fakhr Deen Nizami, in Deccan. Based on Hindu mythology, Kadam Rao Padam Rao addresses mystical issues in a figurative sense.

But it took about 200 more years for Urdu prose to develop: the first literary work in Urdu prose is Sabras and it was written in 1635 – in the Deccan. At that time, Abdullah Qutb Shah ruled Golconda, Deccan. At his command Mulla Asadullah Wajhi (1580-1640), a poet of his court, wrote Sabras, which is an allegorical tale which apparently describes the struggle between husn (beauty) and ishq (love). But he also has some subtle ideas.

Since Sabras is an allegory, its characters and even its places are the symbolic representation of a deeper meaning. Certain abstract qualities, such as love, wisdom, courage, and honor, are personified to convey Sufi moral values ​​and thoughts. The basic theme of Sabras is the search for aab-i-hayaat, or elixir of life, which is eventually found with great difficulty and struggle, not to mention many plot twists.

According to Wajhi, aab-i-hayaat is nothing, as explained at the end, but an utterance or speech, say, a spoken word. But Wajhi was unable to explain this as explicitly as Fattahi Nishapuri did in his Persian work, the original tale on which Sabras is based, says Moulvi Abdul Haq. He was the first scholar to edit and publish this centuries-old work, adding some 50 years to the history of Urdu literature, which was further pushed back by Jameel Jalibi when he discovered and published Padam Rao Kadam Rao .

As discussed by Moulvi Abdul Haq in his introduction to Sabras, published by Anjuman Taraqqi-i-Urdu in 1932, Wajhi borrowed the idea from Husn-o-Dil, or beauty and heart, a mystical and allegorical prose tale written by a 15th century Persian poet Muhammad Ibn-e-Yahya Sibak Fattahi Nishapuri.

Fattahi had written this tale in verse form as Dastoor-i-Ushshaaq in 1436. As Jameel Jalibi says, it became so popular that Fattahi rewrote it in ornate prose and then presented it again in another of his works Shabistan-i-Khayal in 1439. He even inspired some Turkish poets to reproduce it. Some 400 years later, Shabistan-i-Khayal has also been translated into English and German.

So, no wonder it inspired Wajhi and he wrote the story in Urdu prose, closely following the original story. But nowhere did Wajhi mention Fattahi’s work and claim to be the origin of the story. But Wajhi must be credited with writing the first prose literary work of Urdu because before him all Urdu had in prose was religious works or treatises on Sufism and they lacked literary touch.

The language used in Sabras is now almost 400 years old. Its spelling is very different from what we are used to seeing today and one reason is that in the Deccan many Urdu words were pronounced slightly differently. Secondly, some words used in the tale are strange as they originate from languages ​​spoken in Deccan, particularly Telugu, and are not part of the standard Urdu vocabulary. Interestingly, words of Persian origin as well as local or Hindi words worked their way into this vocabulary side by side, giving significant clues to local culture and societal trends.

Sabras is in prose but the reader often comes across sentences ending in rhyming words as was in vogue at the time. Despite a language that seems a bit unfamiliar today, the tale is readable, and an occasional aphoristic expression illuminates the text with laconic truth. Considering the time in which Sabras was written – some 400 years ago – Wajhi deserves all the kudos for writing a language that was not only considered Standard Urdu at the time, but was valued for its literary merits and which is understandable even today except for the words of the local Deccani dialects.

Jameel Jalibi highly praised Wajhi not only for the historical significance of Sabras but also for Wajhi’s ability to transform Deccani Urdu into a literary Urdu that served as a model for generations of writers. Jalibi rightly pointed out that Sabras’ writing was a turning point in the history of Urdu prose.

drraufparekh@yahoo.com

Posted in Dawn, September 12, 2022

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Kristin Lavransdatter in a nutshell http://www.jewsformorality.org/kristin-lavransdatter-in-a-nutshell/ Sat, 10 Sep 2022 10:02:21 +0000 http://www.jewsformorality.org/kristin-lavransdatter-in-a-nutshell/ No series on great literature would be complete without its attention to Sigrid Undset, Norwegian novelist converted to the faith, who received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1928, four years after her reception into the Church. His two most famous works are Kristin Lavransdatter and The Master of Hestviken, both of which are multi-volume […]]]>

No series on great literature would be complete without its attention to Sigrid Undset, Norwegian novelist converted to the faith, who received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1928, four years after her reception into the Church. His two most famous works are Kristin Lavransdatter and The Master of Hestviken, both of which are multi-volume historical epics set in medieval Norway. The first was published in three parts between 1920 and 1922 and the second in four parts between 1925 and 1927.

Although Kristin Lavransdattercontrary to The Master of Hestvikenwas written before Undset was received into the Church, the seeds of conversion are evident in the tone and tenor of the story, in its moral fabric, and in the pervasive atmosphere of Thomistic ethical reality.

The plot of the novel follows the trials and tribulations of the eponymous heroine from her childhood to her death.. Young Kristin betrays her family, and in particular her wise and holy father, by succumbing to a willful passion and its painful and complex consequences. The reader grimaces as the stubborn girl makes mistake after mistake, failing to walk the path of wisdom and virtue with faith and reason.

She learns from her mistakes, sometimes painfully slowly, learning to live with their consequences, loving even though she is often deprived of the love she needs. It is as wife and mother, embracing the struggle and pain of married life, that she comes of age, seasoned with the experience of a life lived for others.

The novel is grounded in Norwegian history, of which Undset had extensive knowledge, and in the spirit of Norse sagas, which she was equally familiar with. The action is pedestrian in the best sense, taking place at the slow, steady pace of the seasons of the year and the speed at which a person can move on foot or on horseback. Such a rhythm allows the reader to enter fully into the time in which the story takes place by entering into the time taken by the characters themselves.

It slows us down so we can see with eyes unclouded by the pace and frenzy of modern life, inviting a contemplative, unhurried approach to the unfolding of events as they unfold. This aspect of Undset’s novel might remind some readers of the wanderings of The Fellowship of the Ring in Tolkien’s classic, which is steeped in the same pre-industrial rhythm as Kristin Lavransdatter and shares the same heroic spirit of the Norse sagas, whose love was shared by both authors and whose influence served each of them in terms of inspiration and aspiration.

Although the pacing and historical and cultural context might suggest analogies to Middle-earth, the character development and the connection between actions and their consequences might invite parallels to Jane Austen’s novels or perhaps to The bride by Alessandro Manzoni. Certainly, the characters in Undset suffer the consequences of their actions and achieve wisdom by living with such consequences, much like the characters in Austen’s novels and Manzoni’s masterpiece.

The power and depth of Kristen Lavransdatter originates from the author’s deep understanding of the meaning of life. This manifests in the way his characters grapple with reality as a quest for that deeper meaning the author already grasps. Readers of the novel also grapple with this reality, empathizing and sympathizing with Kristin as she learns to deal with a weak, unfaithful husband and learns the meaning of life and love through her experience. to be a mother in difficult and painful circumstances. .

The power of the story and the power of Undset as a storyteller is evident in the way the reader is drawn into the very presence of the angst and anger of the situations in which Kristin finds herself. We suffer with the eponymous heroine as she hungers for true happiness, finding solace in raising her children but feeling dissatisfied in the sense that she lacks the fullness of life. Only as she matures, painfully slowly, does she begin to find and feel the fullness of the love that had always eluded her.

We will end with a few words about Undset’s other works. His other great historical saga, The Master of Hestviken, also set in medieval Norway and follows the sad fortune of Olav Audunssøn who, like Shakespeare’s Lear, is more sin than sin. As with Kristin Lavransdatter, the key characters find solace amid life’s whirlwind of misfortunes in their Catholic faith and are fortified by the wise counsel of holy bishops and priests.

Sigrid Undset’s later works were mostly set in contemporary Norway, but echoed historical sagas in their depiction of characters who learn from their mistakes, gaining sanity and sanctity in the process. These include Ida Elizabeth and The wild orchid, the last of which tells the story of Paul Selmer and his slow and hesitant journey to the Catholic Church. A shameless “conversion novel” The wild orchid traces the protagonist’s journey from skepticism to faith in the context of failed relationships.

At the novel’s climax, Paul still hasn’t taken the decisive step of submitting to Holy Mother Church, but he seems about to. His definitive crossing of the threshold is recounted in the sequel, the burning bushwhich leads him deeper into the mystery of life through the embrace of death, the ultimate paradox of Christian life.

Sigrid Undset’s legacy as a novelist is rooted in the realism of the scholastic philosophy of which she was a diligent student. His novels expose the superficiality of relativism and present the deepest metaphysical understanding of the fundamental morality on which all human life and society is based. She sees the real world in which people face the bitter consequences of selfish choices and in which suffering is inevitable, yet potentially redemptive. She sees it and shows it to her readers with crystal clarity enriched with Christian charity. Deep down, his fiction shows us that accepting and embracing suffering is not only the beginning of wisdom, which it is, but also, and paradoxically, it is the path to lasting peace and joy.

Editor’s Note: This is the fortieth in a series of articles explaining the great works of literature “in brief”.

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Hsinchu contestant denies plagiarism charges http://www.jewsformorality.org/hsinchu-contestant-denies-plagiarism-charges/ Tue, 06 Sep 2022 16:00:00 +0000 http://www.jewsformorality.org/hsinchu-contestant-denies-plagiarism-charges/ NYCU THESIS: Text identical to the content of government reports can be found on 31 pages of Lin Keng-jen’s 54-page dissertation, the Democratic Progressive Party said. By Tsai Chang-sheng, Tsai Si-pei and Liu Tzu-hsuan / Staff Reporters, with a Staff Writer Hsinchu City Councilor Lin Keng-jen (林耕仁), a Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) candidate for mayor […]]]>

NYCU THESIS:
Text identical to the content of government reports can be found on 31 pages of Lin Keng-jen’s 54-page dissertation, the Democratic Progressive Party said.

  • By Tsai Chang-sheng, Tsai Si-pei and Liu Tzu-hsuan / Staff Reporters, with a Staff Writer

Hsinchu City Councilor Lin Keng-jen (林耕仁), a Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) candidate for mayor of Hsinchu, on Monday denied wrongdoing and submitted documents for his alma mater to review after becoming the latest candidate in the local elections in November to face accusations of plagiarism.

Earlier in the day, the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) caucus held a press conference where they accused Lin of plagiarizing his master’s thesis from a master’s in business administration program at the University. National Yang Ming Chiao Tung (NYCU).

Hsinchu City Councilman Liu Kang-yen (劉康彥) reported the situation to NYCU.

Photo: Hung Mei-hsiu, Taipei Times

DPP spokeswoman Lin Chin-yi (林靜儀) said texts identical to the contents of government reports can be found on 31 pages of Lin Keng-jen’s 54-page dissertation, or about 60 percent.

The party has asked Lin Keng-jen and the KMT to clarify whether he plagiarized his thesis and used his power as a city councilor to obtain government reports, the DPP caucus whip said, Ker Chien-ming (柯建銘).

Ker asked KMT Chairman Eric Chu (朱立倫) to apologize to the public because the party “nominated an unqualified candidate” and called on Lin Keng-jen to clarify the circumstances leading to the indictment.

NYCU confirmed yesterday that it has received the report from the DPP and will be investigating.

A university committee would announce its findings in 120 days, starting the day after receiving the report, but would not explain the details of the investigation during the process, he said.

Lin Keng-jen said that following similar accusations against former KMT deputy Hsieh Kuo-liang (謝國樑), the party’s candidate for mayor of Keelung, and former prime minister Simon Chang (張善政), his candidate for mayor of Taoyuan, the DPP lives up to “his usual trick.

The DPP is trying to divert public attention from the controversy of a campaign video in which former Minister of Health and Welfare Chen Shih-chung (陳時中), the DPP’s candidate for mayor of Taipei, “promotes sexual harassment” and the poor performance of his Hsinchu mayoral candidate, Hsinchu Deputy Mayor Shen Hui-hung (沈慧虹), Lin Keng-jen said.

The dissertation analyzed security and traffic in Hsinchu City, as these were the two most frequently mentioned issues in petitions from 2008 to 2010, he said.

In the literature review section, he analyzed public government information, all of which was correctly cited, he said.

He thanked the DPP for pointing out he missed six citations in his dissertation and said he admitted his mistakes.

He “would not bow to the DPP’s false accusations,” he said, adding that he had sent documents to the NYCU Research Ethics Board and would “fight for his innocence.”

Asked about the plagiarism accusation against Chang, Chu said on Monday that it was a low-level act that “the public would not accept.”

Since former Hsinchu mayor Lin Chih-chien (林智堅) – who was the DPP’s candidate for mayor of Taoyuan – dropped out after the National Taiwan University (NTU) academic ethics committee recommended that his master’s degree be revoked, claiming he had plagiarized another graduate student’s work, the DPP tried “to excuse Lin Chih-chien by dragging everyone down,” Chu said.

Separately on Monday, Lin Chih-chien appointed a lawyer to file an administrative appeal with the Ministry of Education, claiming the process used by the NTU committee was flawed and seeking the revocation of its Aug. 9 decision.

The ministry confirmed yesterday that it had received the call and would deliberate the matter in accordance with the law.

Additional reporting by Hsieh Chun-lin,

Hung Mei-hsiu, Cheng Shu-ting and Yang Mien-chieh

Comments will be moderated. Keep comments relevant to the article. Remarks containing abusive and obscene language, personal attacks of any kind or promotion will be removed and the user banned. The final decision will be at the discretion of The Taipei Times.

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Disturbed nature and community in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein http://www.jewsformorality.org/disturbed-nature-and-community-in-mary-shelleys-frankenstein/ Sun, 28 Aug 2022 00:29:15 +0000 http://www.jewsformorality.org/disturbed-nature-and-community-in-mary-shelleys-frankenstein/ Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein (1818) is well known to literary audiences and beyond as the story of a brilliant, mad scientist who created a horrific monster that ultimately resulted in the destruction of its creator. There have been a number of movies based on Frankenstein and His Monster, not all of which adhere to the original […]]]>

Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein (1818) is well known to literary audiences and beyond as the story of a brilliant, mad scientist who created a horrific monster that ultimately resulted in the destruction of its creator. There have been a number of movies based on Frankenstein and His Monster, not all of which adhere to the original script. But surely the most prominent theme has been the Promethean spirit of Romanticism which is explored through the two main narrators, namely, Robert Walton and Victor Frankenstein. Yet this story is also about the danger involved in playing Prometheus, as Victor realizes after creating life from the abode of the dead. Like most romantics of her time, Mary Shelley had a deep reverence for nature, and her Frankenstein emphasizes the importance of maintaining a balance between nature and humanity. The novel explores the devastating aspects of nature when its limits are violated and unnatural rites are performed.

Most of the time, Frankenstein’s attitude towards nature resembles that of a master who would like to consider the world as his possession. He turned passionately to nature after the death of his youngest brother William, “Dear mountains! my beautiful lake to me! how do you welcome your wanderer?” Instead of enjoying nature as it is, before he dared to touch it, and now he moans plaintively against the natural world which is indifferent to his misery.

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The narration begins with Walton’s reference to the Coleridge albatross and the “land of mist and snow”, and hints at an unnatural act similar to the killing of the albatross. Coleridge’s Mariner killed an innocent bird for no apparent reason and in doing so challenged human compassion regarding the value of life. Victor, on the other hand, creates a fanciful life, and thus transgresses natural and community boundaries.

Despite his egocentric view of the world, Victor is not unaware of the healing power of nature. Whenever he refers to his childhood in Geneva, he remembers the beautiful mountains and green pastures surrounding his father’s house. But in his narration it becomes as clear that in his zeal to create life, for a time he had managed to forget nature. Hypnotized by the power of nature manifested through lightning, he wanted to possess it without understanding the responsibility involved in its manipulation.

As the mythical Prometheus taught mankind, his own creation, the use of fire, Victor uses the secret of electricity (another form of fire) to blow into his monster. However, unlike Prometheus, he lacks foresight and as a result, instead of being saved by his creation, he is pursued by it. At the end of his sad story, he becomes the same lightning-struck tree that inspired him in his scientific adventures: “But I’m a damn tree; the lock entered my soul; and then I felt that I had to survive to expose what I will soon cease to be – a wretched spectacle of destroyed humanity, pitiful to others and abhorrent to myself.”

Anne Mellor astutely observes: “Nature pursues Victor Frankenstein with the very electricity he stole. Lightning, thunder and rain rage around him. The November night when he steals the “spark of being” from nature is dull, gloomy and damp. .”

Despite his egocentric view of the world, Victor is not unaware of the healing power of nature. Whenever he refers to his childhood in Geneva, he remembers the beautiful mountains and green pastures surrounding his father’s house.

Most of the time, Frankenstein’s attitude towards nature resembles that of a master who would like to consider the world as his possession. He turned passionately to nature after the death of his youngest brother William, “Dear mountains! my beautiful lake to me! how do you welcome your wanderer?” Instead of enjoying nature as it is, before he dared to touch it, and now he moans plaintively against the natural world which is indifferent to his misery. Raised and spoiled by the attention of his family and friends, Victor is invariably the center of his own world. His selfish concern for himself shows its extreme when he is busy creating the female creature on a remote Scottish island. There, while he mocks the miserable living conditions of the islanders, his ego is stung as they don’t show him enough gratitude for making his home among them. Although he is hailed by Walton as a noble creature with the ability to “raise his soul from the earth” (16), he is actually an outcast in his monster’s image. Due to his unnatural birth, the monster is not welcome in human society, and likewise, due to his transgression and self-centered view of the world, Victor is a stranger to nature.

Thus, the creator and the creation conjure the two worlds whose doors are closed to them. Ironically enough, whenever Victor tries to embrace nature imploring her to support him, almost as a response he finds his monstrous creation in the surroundings reminding him of how usurping the powers of nature he had created a being. grotesque and unnatural. It seems that the creature itself becomes an agent of nature causing its retribution.

Although she focuses a lot on the devastating powers of nature, Mary Shelly strikes a balance by also revealing her nurturing and nurturing aspects. Through the characters of Henry Clerval, Elizabeth Lavenza and Ernest Frankenstein, she highlights this harmonious relationship between nature and human beings. Victor’s wife, Elizabeth, appreciates and loves the little things of nature, as does her best friend Henry, but their unfortunate and untimely death completes Victor’s dissociation from nature. Through the character of Ernest, Victor’s other brother, Mary Shelley further emphasizes the importance of the sustaining power of nature. Unsurprisingly, Ernest is the only member of the Frankenstein family to survive the tragedy that overwhelms the other members of his family.

Victor Frankenstein’s aspiration and failure thus focus on the futility of ambition devoid of human compassion. Its failure can then be seen as its lack of understanding in the unity of the elements of the universe, of which nature is an essential part. For Victor, creating his creature was a scientific process of anatomy that required little understanding of nature and life. He also forgot all about ethical and aesthetic considerations.

The most famous idea of ​​Romanticism is considered an individual experience, as the six leading male Romantic poets prioritized the rise of the individual over the group. However, there are hundreds of other writers of the time, men and women, who tell other stories behind the “romantic sublime”, seeing it more as a shared story of mutual understanding and partnership not only between men and women, but between the solitary and the community, and keeping a balance between nature and humanity.

For many readers, Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is an utterly relevant tale for the 21st century wasteland. In our quest to achieve the unattainable, we too have destroyed lives, broken sacred relationships and upended the natural order of things. Would it be too pessimistic to say that the monstrosity of our actions will get us too? Or, perhaps, we are delusional enough to think about waking up and restoring the lost balance.

Sohana Manzoor is an associate professor in the Department of English and Humanities at ULAB. She is also the literary editor of the Daily Star.

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Futurama Writers Had A Rule For The Character Of Professor Farnsworth http://www.jewsformorality.org/futurama-writers-had-a-rule-for-the-character-of-professor-farnsworth/ Fri, 26 Aug 2022 12:54:00 +0000 http://www.jewsformorality.org/futurama-writers-had-a-rule-for-the-character-of-professor-farnsworth/ The cliché of the Dirty Old Man archetype, of course, is as old as ancient literature. We find lascivious old men in Shakespeare, Molière and Commedia dell’arte (in the character of Pantalone). The older man repeatedly saying scary and sexual things about young women is a trope that many writers fall back on today, and […]]]>

The cliché of the Dirty Old Man archetype, of course, is as old as ancient literature. We find lascivious old men in Shakespeare, Molière and Commedia dell’arte (in the character of Pantalone). The older man repeatedly saying scary and sexual things about young women is a trope that many writers fall back on today, and they still crop up regularly; remember Herbert the Pervert from “Family Guy?” Many TV writers – through no fault of their own – tend to fall back on traditional structures and archetypes as a form of shorthand. Once the easy parts have been communicated, the actual story can be told. Obviously, the “Futurama” showrunners wanted to avoid Dirty Old Man with the Professor, because – as Kaplan recalls – was a specific decree:

“I remember a rule that the teacher isn’t, don’t pervert young women. He can be callous and weird, but he’s not perverted. I thought that was an interesting rule.”

The teacher can indeed be insensitive and weird. He doesn’t seem to care much about the lives of his employees at Planet Express and, as mentioned, has a series of doomsday devices. He constantly experiments on the people around him, swapping their brains, advancing them in time, or raising them from the dead. While generally ethical – the Professor is at least more ethical than evil corporate superwoman Mom (Tress MacNeille) – he has few qualms about tinkering with the web of life or killing guinea pigs.

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Thoughts on Milton, Mom, Kennedy and Alito http://www.jewsformorality.org/thoughts-on-milton-mom-kennedy-and-alito/ Fri, 19 Aug 2022 14:00:36 +0000 http://www.jewsformorality.org/thoughts-on-milton-mom-kennedy-and-alito/ I was away from this space the last time my Sunday turn came. My excuse is that I was in Delaware for a death in the family. I won’t bore you with the details except to reveal that the deceased was a first cousin to whom I had been particularly close and who was only […]]]>

I was away from this space the last time my Sunday turn came. My excuse is that I was in Delaware for a death in the family. I won’t bore you with the details except to reveal that the deceased was a first cousin to whom I had been particularly close and who was only three months older than me. I marvel that I am still running in front of “the winged chariot of time”.

I guess there’s nothing like a funeral to remind us not to waste our time. So, without further ado, let’s dive into this week’s thoughts that wander Kitsap County and sometimes beyond.

milton and mom

File this column under the heading “Truth is stranger than fiction.”

After my mother died at age 56 in 1978, I found her high school yearbook. She graduated in 1940, and under her senior photo I found this inscription: “Come and trip it as ye go / On the light fantastic toe.”

The lines are from “L’Allegro”, a school exercise accompaniment poem by John Milton of “Paradise Lost” fame. This contrasts with Milton’s “Il Penseroso”. The first celebrates a carefree and cheerful attitude towards life – the second a serious attention to responsibility and duty. Clearly, the yearbook editor made my mother a party girl – which she was and remained throughout her short life of three marriages.

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